Ballast water treatment systems (BWTS) developed to meet the standards set forth in the Ballast Water Management Convention adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) were summarized here considering existing and developing BWTS. The systems need to be applied in very different settings onboard (e.g. different vessel types, flow rates and waters to be treated) so that fundamentally different BWTS are considered.

To mitigate the ecological risks associated with ballast water discharge, ballast water treatment systems are installed on ships. These systems aim to remove, kill, or inactivate the organisms and pathogens present in ballast water before it is discharged.

Here are some key aspects of ballast water treatment systems:

Various technologies are used in ballast water treatment systems, including physical, chemical, and biological methods.

Common treatment technologies include:

Filtration: Using screens or filters to physically remove larger organisms and particles from the ballast water.

Disinfection: Utilizing chemicals, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, or electrochlorination to kill or inactivate organisms and pathogens.

Deoxygenation: Reducing oxygen levels in ballast water to control the survival of organisms

Ballast water treatment systems can be installed in existing ships through retrofitting or incorporated into new vessel designs during construction. Retrofitting may present engineering and space constraints, while newbuild installations can be more seamlessly integrated.

Ships are required to maintain records of ballast water management and treatment activities. Compliance with ballast water regulations is verified through inspections and the availability of appropriate documentation.

The implementation of ballast water treatment systems aims to minimize the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens, reduce the ecological impact on marine ecosystems, and protect coastal areas from invasive species. It is essential for shipowners and operators to understand and comply with the ballast water management regulations applicable to their vessels to ensure environmentally responsible practices. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has established the Ballast Water Management Convention to regulate the management and treatment of ballast water on ships. The convention sets standards and guidelines for ballast water treatment, including discharge limits and the type approval process for treatment systems.

Ballast water treatment systems must undergo a rigorous type approval process to ensure their efficacy in treating ballast water. This process involves testing the system's performance under different conditions and verifying compliance with regulatory standards.

Ballast water treatment systems can be installed in existing ships through retrofitting or incorporated into new vessel designs during construction. Retrofitting may present engineering and space constraints, while newbuild installations can be more seamlessly integrated.

Ships are required to maintain records of ballast water management and treatment activities. Compliance with ballast water regulations is verified through inspections and the availability of appropriate documentation.

The implementation of ballast water treatment systems aims to minimize the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens, reduce the ecological impact on marine ecosystems, and protect coastal areas from invasive species. It is essential for shipowners and operators to understand and comply with the ballast water management regulations applicable to their vessels to ensure environmentally responsible practices.

The shipping industry is under pressure to decarbonise in the next decade, to cut emissions of pollutants including carbon. Many have announced their strategies to be carbon-neutral and targets for net zero within 10 or 20 years. In the long term, this will come from switching to low-carbon or zero-carbon fuels and batteries, and introducing efficient newbuilds.

But developing alternative and sustainable fuels is difficult and expensive, and maritime industries may not be able to adopt these new fuels until 2030.
In the shorter term, shipowners need to react to IMO’s new carbon intensity index (CII), which came into force Q4 2022, by improving the efficiency of existing ships through digitalisation and voyage optimisation.
Remote monitoring using onboard sensors, IoT and regular observational reporting enables shipping companies to understand the energy intensity of vessel operations and offer advice to captains to reduce fuel consumption.
Voyages can be optimised to lower ship speeds and use favourable currents and weather patterns to cut emissions while maintaining safe navigation. Analysing data can help owners to demonstrate the impact of operational efficiencies, monitoring fuel consumption and reporting emissions cuts to authorities.


Smart vessel maintenance

Shipping companies and engine manufacturers are increasingly using AI and machine learning for predictive maintenance on critical equipment on vessels. Engineers can use machine learning and adaptive algorithms to gain advanced insight into performance, condition and outcomes of ship machinery, systems and whole vessels.
These are evolving technologies, with hardware and software elements learning how to mimic human capacity for observing, monitoring, understanding and decision-making.
By combining AI with human expertise, shipowners can identify any operational issues, predict when maintenance is required to prevent breakdowns and provide chief engineers and captains with advice on improving machinery performance.
Owners can reduce operating costs using predictive diagnostics and IoT-based smart maintenance to enable in-time parts availability for optimal maintenance and to facilitate more in-water overhauls to reduce drydocking expenditure.
They can also use real-time data and advanced 3D computer models of ships for digital twins of actual vessels to monitor, diagnose and predict when maintenance is required.

AI and machine learning can also be used to determine how to tackle hull and propulsion fouling.
These technologies can be combined with virtual and augmented reality in eyewear, so onshore engineers can provide real-time information and advice to those maintaining and overhauling machinery on ships.


JIT port arrival

There is a conundrum in the shipping industry that needs to be solved before ships can be truly decarbonised. Ports and terminals work on a different timescale to ships, and charterers have alternative requirements to shipowners.
This is seen regularly with ships sailing at high speed with high emissions between ports, only to be anchored outside the harbour waiting for its slot to load or unload cargo. With many ports and terminals working on a first-come-first-served basis, cargo owners, charterers and ship operators want to get there early, but this leaves ships steaming at full speeds consuming much more fuel than if their voyage was optimised.
There is also evidence ships have taken the quickest route between ports ignoring forecasts of adverse weather, putting the vessel, cargo and seafarers at risk.
Decarbonisation efforts means there is growing need for just-in-time (JIT) port arrivals and better communications between stakeholders in the ship and the ports.
AI is expected to play an increasing role in voyage optimisation and JIT port arrivals.


Blockchain technology

Blockchain technology has been increasingly utilized in the maritime industry to enhance transparency, visibility, security, and efficiency across different domains such as supply chain management, vessel registration, and cargo tracking. The core concept of blockchain involves a decentralized digital ledger that provides a secure and transparent way of recording transactions.
With its distributed architecture, blockchain can create an immutable record of a ship’s movements, which can help to prevent fraud and enhance safety. Furthermore, the use of smart contracts instead of paperwork on a blockchain platform can help automate various processes, reducing delays and saving costs.
Manual data logging systems are slow and prone to forgery. This fuels a lack of trust between maritime companies, vessel owners, vessel operators, and ports, hindering overall productivity. Blockchain technology counters this by offering transparent, tamper-proof data storage, ensuring data integrity and visibility into transactions and financial operations.
Startups are developing blockchain solutions like automated documentation platforms, payment systems, and maritime-specific smart contracts. This transparency in the maritime value chain ensures seamless operations with tamper-free data and communication flow.


JET Engineering System Solutions provides 5G at Sea

JET Engineering System Solutions is a British startup that enables 5G at sea. The startup deploys autonomous and uncrewed connectivity platforms to achieve this, creating a 5G mesh. This network provides a low-latency, high-speed network for vessels and other maritime assets. In addition, it improves search and rescue operations, optimizes aquaculture management, facilitates offshore renewable asset monitoring, and enables smart ports.

Advancements in connectivity and on-premise systems enable the integration of emerging technologies in the otherwise disconnected and remote maritime sector. Clean energy and energy-efficient integrations collectively reduce the emissions of the industry. AI, robotics, big data, analytics, and blockchain further improve the efficiency of maritime operations.


The marine industry plays a vital role in global trade and transportation. To keep up with this demand, the industry must find innovative ways to improve efficiency and prioritise safety. With increasing pressure to meet these challenges, the need for innovation has become more urgent than ever and new marine PPE and safety equipment won’t be far behind.

The use of artificial intelligence within the marine and shipping industry may surprise you. One of the most promising applications is through route optimisation. AI can be essential in helping ships navigate the most efficient and cost-effective routes. This is particularly important in the face of rising fuel costs, as optimised routes can reduce fuel consumption and transportation costs.

Autonomous Vessels:

AI is used in the development of autonomous or semi-autonomous vessels. These vessels can navigate, avoid obstacles, and make decisions based on real-time data using AI algorithms, sensors, and communication systems.

Predictive Maintenance:

AI helps in predicting equipment failures and maintenance needs by analyzing data from various sensors. This proactive approach reduces downtime and enhances the reliability of marine systems.

Route Optimization:

AI algorithms analyze historical and real-time data, such as weather conditions, sea currents, and vessel performance, to optimize navigation routes. This improves fuel efficiency, reduces emissions, and enhances overall operational efficiency.

Collision Avoidance:

AI-based collision avoidance systems use data from radar, sonar, and other sensors to detect potential collisions and take corrective actions, such as altering course or adjusting speed.

Weather Forecasting and Risk Management:

AI is used to process large datasets and improve the accuracy of weather forecasting, helping vessels plan routes to avoid adverse conditions. AI also contributes to risk assessment and management in the marine industry.

Supply Chain Optimization:

AI is employed to optimize supply chain logistics, including cargo scheduling, port operations, and inventory management. This ensures timely and cost-effective transportation of goods.

Environmental Monitoring:

AI technologies, including remote sensing and image analysis, are used for monitoring and managing environmental impacts in marine ecosystems. This includes detecting oil spills, monitoring water quality, and assessing the health of marine life.

Energy Efficiency:

AI helps in optimizing energy consumption on vessels by analyzing and adjusting engine performance, monitoring fuel usage, and recommending energy-efficient practices.

Security and Surveillance:

AI-powered surveillance systems enhance security in ports and on vessels. These systems can identify and alert authorities to suspicious activities, improving overall maritime security.

Data Analytics for Decision-Making:

AI facilitates the analysis of vast amounts of data collected from sensors, satellite imagery, and other sources. This information aids decision-making processes, enabling operators to make informed choices for vessel operations, maintenance, and business strategies.


The integration of AI in the marine industry is expected to continue evolving, leading to increased automation, improved safety, and enhanced operational efficiency. As technology advances, new applications and solutions will likely emerge, further transforming the maritime sector.

In the near future artificial intelligence can be a very good assistant for seafarers, but you should not rely on it 100%, because the human factor is the strongest, and in some situations can find a quick way out, in which the artificial intelligence can fail in the system, for example due to the work on a pattern or lack of communication.

While artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to play a significant role in the maritime domain, fully replacing human beings is unlikely in the foreseeable future. The maritime industry involves complex and dynamic situations that require human expertise, decision-making, and adaptability.

Here are a few reasons why complete replacement is unlikely:


Complex Decision-Making: The maritime environment is unpredictable and often involves complex decision-making processes that require human intuition, experience, and ethical considerations. AI may assist in decision support systems, but the final decisions are likely to remain in human hands.

Regulatory and Ethical Considerations: The maritime industry is subject to strict regulations and international standards. Fully autonomous vessels would need to comply with these regulations, and issues such as liability, safety, and ethical concerns would need to be addressed before widespread adoption.

Emergency Situations: Humans are better equipped to handle unexpected and emergency situations at sea. The ability to adapt to unforeseen events, make split-second decisions, and respond to emergencies with empathy is currently beyond the capabilities of AI.

Maintenance and Repairs: Vessels require maintenance, repairs, and troubleshooting, tasks that often require a hands-on approach. While AI can assist with predictive maintenance, there will still be a need for engineers.

Human Interaction: The maritime industry involves interactions with various stakeholders, including crew members, port authorities, and other vessels. Effective communication and collaboration, which involve emotional intelligence and cultural understanding, are areas where human presence is crucial.

Public Perception and Trust: Acceptance of fully autonomous vessels may face challenges in gaining the trust of the public and maritime stakeholders. There will likely be a gradual transition, with a focus on human oversight and collaboration with AI systems.


AI can certainly enhance efficiency, safety, and decision support in the maritime domain, a complete replacement of humans by AI in this field is not currently feasible due to the complexity of the tasks and the need for human skills in certain critical situations. The future is likely to involve increased integration of AI technologies to augment human capabilities rather than outright replacement.

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HSE officers are detail-oriented professionals with strong critical thinking skills who assess risks and create reports to protect others against health, safety, and environmental dangers.

HSE officers, also known as health, safety, and environment officers and environment health and safety officers, monitor health and safety, assess risk, and design strategies to reduce potential hazards within an assigned workplace. HSE officers manage and train other health and safety staff members and frequently travel to perform field investigations and respond to incident reports.

How to Become an HSE Officer

A career as a HSE Officer can be both rewarding and challenging. It’s important to consider all the factors that will influence your success in this field, including your personality type, interests, and skills.

If you’re interested in becoming a HSE Officer, it’s important to start by gaining some experience in the field. This could include working as a safety officer or health and safety technician.

It’s also important to keep up-to-date on the latest developments in health and safety. Read industry journals and attend training courses to ensure that you have the knowledge and skills required to succeed in this field.

Employers hire HSE officers who have the following essential skills:


Communication skills - HSE officers use written communication skills to create reports and training materials, and verbal communication skills to delegate tasks to other HSE staff members.

Organization skills - HSE officers use organization skills to manage multiple safety projects and analyze multiple studies at once.

Public speaking - HSE officers use public speaking skills to give presentations and present oral reports regarding health, safety, and environmental hazards within a specific workplace or geographic area.

Analytical thinking - good analytical skills and the ability to think critically are must-haves for HSE officers, who analyze data and compile it into usable material and reports.

Leadership - HSE officers use leadership skills to manage other health, safety, and environment staff members and assign them specific investigative tasks.


Health, safety, and environment (HSE) officers are responsible for:


  • Ensuring proper safety training, hazard awareness, and compliance with regulations for employees.
  • Conducting site inspections, investigating incidents/accidents, and preparing detailed reports.
  • Collaborating with management to develop safety policies, procedures, and programs.
  • Monitoring safety compliance, recording incidents, and identifying potential hazards.
  • Developing, implementing, and monitoring the company's Health, Safety & Environmental Management System.
  • Promoting a positive safety culture, conducting audits, and staying updated on relevant legislation and best practices.
  • Liaising with external bodies, delivering HSE training, and compiling performance reports for management review.
  • Supporting HSE objectives, participating in emergency response planning, and performing assigned duties.


What is an HSE certification?

HSE certificates implies of providing the training in safety methods, processes and regulations and can serve as a license for professionals in the field. These certifications provide training on topics like reducing injury or illness, improving employee productivity, increasing regulatory compliance and reducing the economic burden of your company. HSE certifications can apply to many industries.


If you're looking to enter the HSE field or earn a better position within it, consider earning one of these certifications:


Certified Safety Professional (CSP)

People who earn a Certified Safety Professional can visit worksites to make risk assessments, investigate incidents, prepare emergency response plans and maintain loss records.

The licensing body, the Board of Certified Safety Professionals (BCSP), requires candidates to have at least a bachelor's degree, four years of safety experience that's at least 50% preventative, have a BCSP qualified credential and pass the CSP exam.

Earning this certification can show you excel with hazard prevention, regulatory compliance, managing safety programs and product security.

Certified Safety and Health Manager (CSHM)

The Certified Safety and Health Manager credential is popular for safety professionals, and it focuses on technical knowledge and business management skills. The Institute of Hazardous Materials Management (IHMM) issues the CSHM exam to candidates who have a bachelor's degree or higher from an accredited college or university and five years of qualified work experience.

If you don't have that much experience, the IHMM accepts those who have earned its Associate Safety and Health Manager (ASHM) designation and have two years of experience. Earning the CSHM can show you excel at regulatory compliance and workplace safety management.

Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) Level 3 Certificate.

The IOSH Level 3 Certificate focuses on the understanding and implementation of safety and health rules in a business context. There are no entry requirements to pursue this certification, but the IOSH recommends candidates take its Managing Safely course to learn the material the exam covers.

The assessments cover safety and health management in a company, how to improve safety and health culture in an organization and a presentation on a strategic approach to workplace safety. Earning this certificate provides you with technical knowledge and skills using assessments that are practical that you can apply to your company.

The NEBOSH Certificate is a widely recognized and respected qualification in the field of occupational health and safety. There are several types of NEBOSH Certificates, each focusing on specific areas of health and safety.

Some of the commonly known NEBOSH Certificates include:

  • NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (NGC): This is a widely recognized qualification for individuals working in or looking to work in the field of health and safety. It covers a broad range of topics, including risk assessment, control of hazards, and legal requirements.
  • NEBOSH International General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (IGC): Similar to the National General Certificate, but with an international focus, this qualification is suitable for individuals working in any industry, anywhere in the world.
  • NEBOSH Certificate in Fire Safety and Risk Management: This qualification is designed for individuals with fire safety responsibilities in the workplace. It covers fire risk assessment, prevention, and emergency response.

It's important to note that NEBOSH qualifications are not limited to certificates. NEBOSH also offers higher-level qualifications such as diplomas and specialist certificates for those seeking more advanced knowledge and expertise in occupational health and safety.

HSE Officer Salary & Outlook

Health and safety officer salaries vary depending on their level of education, years of experience, and the size and industry of the company. They may also earn additional compensation in the form of bonuses.

The employment of health and safety engineers is expected to grow at an average rate over the next decade.

Employment growth will be driven by the need to ensure worker safety in a variety of industries, including healthcare, manufacturing, and retail trade. As companies continue to automate processes and increase productivity, they will need to hire more health and safety engineers to ensure that workers are protected from new hazards associated with automation.


Salaries for Project HSE Managers in different area can vary based on factors such as experience, the scale of the wind farm project, geographic location, and the company's size.  Additionally, salary structures can change over time due to industry trends and economic conditions.

Storing large quantities of fresh water on board ship is costly and takes up valuable space. An alternative solution, in the form of a process and technology for sea water desalination - fresh water generator.

Fresh water generators (FWG) convert seawater (saltwater) to fresh water. FWGs are a common site on many marine vessels as it allows them to generate the fresh water they need whilst at sea. The process of generating fresh water is achieved via distillation.

There are three main methods employed for generating fresh water from seawater, these are boiling, evaporating and reverse osmosis (RO). Most marine vessels and industrial plants produce fresh water using either evaporators or RO plants. Large desalination plants may be connected to the steam circuit of a thermal power station, the steam is used to evaporate seawater.

A FWG consists of the following main components:
  • Hot and cold water connections
  • Shell
  • Condenser
  • Evaporator
  • Demister
  • Fresh Water Pump
  • Ejector/Eductor
  • Temperature Monitoring Devices
  • Air-Purge Valve
  • Safety Relief Valve (SRV)
  • Salinometer

Low pressure flash evaporators are connected to a seawater and hot water system. On marine vessels, seawater is sourced directly from the sea chest whilst hot water is sourced from the engine jacket water system (engine cooling water system).

The upper part of the FWG houses a condenser plate heat exchanger whilst the lower part houses an evaporator plate heat exchanger. The condenser allows seawater to pass through the heat exchanger in a closed system. The evaporator allows hot water to pass through the heat exchanger in a closed system. Both the condenser and evaporator are not fully sealed heat exchangers, the gaskets are modified to allow seawater to evaporate from the evaporator plates and fresh water to condense on the condenser plates. In short, plate heat exchangers usually have two fully closed systems, but in a FWG, one system per heat exchanger is closed and the other is open.

A demister is installed between the condenser and evaporator. The condenser, evaporator and demister are housed within the FWG shell.

Fresh water from the FWG condenser is pumped to a storage tank by a fresh water pump (usually a small centrifugal pump). An ejector/eductor is used to create and maintain a vacuum within the shell; it also removes brine (water with high salinity) from the lower part of the shell.

The temperature within the shell, seawater system and jacket water system is continuously monitored using thermometers (local indication) and PT 100 sensors (remote indication).

An air-purge valve is installed at the top of the shell. The air-purge should be open when the FWG is not in service and closed when the FWG is in service.

As a precaution against over-pressurization, a safety relief valve (SRV) is installed on the top side of the shell. A relief valve gradually opens as the inlet pressure increases above the set-point. A relief valve opens only as necessary to relieve the over-pressure condition. Relief valves are typically used for liquid systems.

A salinometer measures the salinity ('saltiness') of the generated fresh water. If the fresh water has too high a salinity, it is dumped/rejected (usually to the bilge). If the fresh water is within limits (typically <10 ppm), it is sent to a fresh water storage tank.

Seawater is pumped from the sea chest to the FWG condenser. It passes through the condenser, then the evaporator, and finally through the ejector. A small amount of seawater is diverted directly from the condenser to the ejector, this maintains the vacuum within the shell. The seawater passes through the condenser first because it absorbs some heat prior to entering the evaporator, which increases the overall efficiency of the FWG.

Jacket water is pumped from the main engine to the FWG evaporator. The jacket water has a temperature of approximately 80°C (176°F). Because the shell is under vacuum, 80°C is sufficient to evaporate some of the seawater passing through the evaporator. It is important not to evaporate too much seawater as this will lead to salt forming on the plates.

Water evaporated from the evaporator forms a water mist which passes through the demister. The demister removes any carry-over salts; the water mist then reaches the condenser. Because the condenser plates are below the condensing temperature of the water mist, the water mist condenses upon the condenser plates. The condensed fresh water is then extracted using the fresh water pump.

Water Treatment

Fresh water directly after the FWG is called distilled water and is used for washing and cleaning applications etc. Correcting the water PH value, then passing it through a mineralizer and bacterial treatment plant, yields drinking water (potable water).

Chemical dosing and UV filters are two of the most common bacterial treatment plants. For the health and welfare of drinking water consumers, it is essential bacteria levels are continually monitored and controlled.

Hardness is caused by magnesium and calcium ions in the water. Water hardness is a concern due to its tendency to form scale upon system surfaces e.g. heat exchanger surfaces, piping etc. Water softeners dose the water with sodium (salt) to reduce water hardness and reduce the likelihood of scale occurring.

Fresh water generator troubleshooting
Low fresh water production:
  • sea water pressure low because of Ships draft, choked filters, fault in pump etc.;
  • level of brine is too high;
  • faulty Ejector nozzle/nozzle choked;
  • incorrect feed;
  • scale formation in evaporator or condenser;
  • shell temperature is too high;
  • condenser cooling water flow is reduced;
  • condenser cooling water temp. too high;
  • incorrect assembly of plates;
  • improper vacuum due to the leakage in plants like from pressure gauge, vent, distillate ump seal etc.
Vacuum is not maintaining:
  • air leaks into the evaporator shell in large quantities and the air ejector cannot cope;
  • the cooling water flow through the condenser is reduced or the cooling water temperature is high. This causes saturation temperature and hence saturation pressure within the condenser to rise;
  • malfunctioning of the air ejector;
  • the flow rate of the heating medium increased and excess water vapour produced. Since this excess vapours cannot be condensed, shell pressure increases or vacuum falls.
Increase in Salinity of Freshwater:
  • brine level inside the shell too high;
  • leaking condenser tubes or plates;
  • operation of evaporator near shore with contaminated feed water;
  • shell temperature and pressure are too low;
  • increased solubility of CO2 generated from the salt water due to reduced seawater temperature. This dissolved CO2 makes water acidic and conductivity of water increases. Hence salinometer shows increased salinity, which is a measure of conductivity and not the presence of salt.
Drill frequency
  • Holding frequent drills makes the crew more familiar with the life-saving appliances on board their ships and increases their confidence that the appliances will work and will be effective in an emergency.
Drills must be safe
  • Abandon ship drills should be planned, organized and performed in accordance with relevant shipboard requirements of occupational safety and health so that the recognized risks are minimized.
  • Drills provide an opportunity to verify that the life-saving appliances are working and that all associated equipment is in place, in good working order and ready for use.
  • Before conducting drills, it should be checked that the lifeboat and its equipment have been maintained in accordance with the ship's maintenance manuals and any associated technical documentation, as well as noting all the precautionary measures necessary.
  • Abnormal conditions of wear and tear or corrosion should be reported to the responsible officer immediately.
Emphasis on learning
  • Drills should be conducted with an emphasis on learning and be viewed as a learning experience, not just as a task to meet a regulatory requirement to conduct drills.
  • During drills, care should be taken to ensure that persons on board familiarize themselves with their duties and with the equipment.
  • If necessary, pauses should be made during the drills to explain especially difficult elements.
Planning and organizing drills
  • SOLAS requires that drills shall, as far as practicable, be conducted as if there was an actual emergency.
  • In preparing for a drill, those responsible should review the manufacturer's instruction manual to ensure that a planned drill is conducted properly.
  • Lessons learned in the course of a drill should be documented and made a part of the follow-up shipboard training discussions and the planning of the next drill session.
  • The lowering of a boat with its full complement of persons is an example of an element of a drill that may, depending on the circumstances, involve an unnecessary risk. Such drills should only be carried out if special precautions are observed.
  • The entire drill should, as far as possible, be carried out, while ensuring that the drill can be performed in such a way that it is safe in every respect.
  • Elements of the drill that may involve unnecessary risks need special attention or may be excluded from the drill.
  • Lessons learned in the course of a drill should be documented and made a part of the follow-up shipboard training discussions and the planning of the next drill session.
  • The lowering of a boat with its full complement of persons is an example of an element of a drill that may, depending on the circumstances, involve an unnecessary risk.
  • Such drills should only be carried out if special precautions are observed.
  • Every crew member shall participate in at least one abandon ship drill and one fire drill every month.
  • The drills of the crew shall take place within 24 h of the ship leaving a port if more than 25% of the crew have not participated in abandon ship and fire drills on board that particular ship in the previous month.
  • When a ship enters service for the first time, after modification of a major character or when a new crew is engaged, these drills shall be held before sailing.
  • It is a legal requirement that every crew member who is assigned to emergency duties is familiar with those duties before the ship sails. This requirement may also be found in the STCW Convention and in the requirements of the ISM code.
  • In passenger ships, whenever passengers are to be on board for 24 hours or longer, there must be a muster of passengers within 24 hours of their joining at which time they are to be instructed in the use of lifejackets and the actions to be taken in any emergency. In general this muster should take place, whenever possible, before the ship sails.
  • Whenever a new passenger or passengers join there shall be a passenger briefing before the ship sails made through the public address system or a similar effective system and supplemented if appropriate by video display facilities and similar.
  • The briefing should cover the items required in the emergency instructions for passengers and be in English and also in any other language likely to be used by a majority of the passengers.
Lifeboats lowered by means of falls
  • During drills, everyone participating should be alert for potentially dangerous conditions or situations and should bring them to the attention of the responsible person for appropriate action.
  • When drills are to be performed with persons on board the lifeboat, it is recommended that the boat be lowered and recovered without any persons on board first to ascertain that the arrangement functions correctly.
  • In this case, the boat should then be lowered into the water with only the number of persons on board necessary to operate the boat.
  • To prevent lashings or gripes from getting entangled, proper release should be checked before swinging out the davit.
Free-fall lifeboats
  • The monthly drills with free-fall lifeboats should be carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions, so that the persons who are to enter the boat in an emergency are trained to embark the boat, take their seats in a correct way and use the safety belts; as well as being instructed on how to act during launching into the sea.
  • When the lifeboat is free-fall launched as part of a drill, this should be carried out with the minimum personnel required to manoeuvre the boat in the water and to recover it.
  • The recovery operation should be carried out with special attention, bearing in mind the high-risk level of this operation.
  • Where permitted by SOLAS4 , simulated launching should be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, taking due note of the Guidelines for simulated launching of free-fall lifeboats.

SOLAS regulation III/ requires that lifeboats for free-fall launching be launched by free-fall every six months with its assigned operating crew on board. During such launching, only the persons who are to manoeuvre the boat in the water should be on board.  The same SOLAS regulation gives the Administration a possibility of extending the interval between the launching of lifeboats by free-fall to 12 months provided that an arrangement is provided for simulated launching every six months.


Conduct of drills – typical simulated launching sequence (SOLAS regulation III/19)
  • Check equipment and documentation to ensure that all components of the lifeboat and launching appliance are in good operational condition.
  • Ensure that all personnel involved in the drill are familiar with the operating manuals, posters and signs.
  • Ensure that the restraining device(s) provided by the manufacturer for simulated launching are installed and secure and that the free-fall release mechanism is fully and correctly engaged.
  • Establish and maintain good communication between the assigned operating crew and the responsible person.
  • Disengage lashings, gripes, etc. installed to secure the lifeboat for sea or for maintenance, except those required for simulated free-fall.
  • Participating crew board the lifeboat and fasten their seatbelts under the supervision of the responsible person.
  • All crew disembark the lifeboat.
  • Return the lifeboat to the condition it was in prior to step provided in paragraph 3.4. Ensure that the lifeboat is returned to its normal stowed condition. Remove any restraining and/or recovery devices used only for the simulated launch procedure.
Marking, periodical operation and inspection of watertight doors, etc., in passenger ships
  • Drills for the operating of watertight doors, sidescuttles, valves and closing mechanisms of scuppers, ash-chutes and rubbish-chutes shall take place weekly.
  • In ships in which the voyage exceeds one week in duration a complete drill shall be held before leaving port, and others thereafter at least once a week during the voyage.
  • All watertight doors, both hinged and power operated, in main transverse bulkheads, in use at sea, shall be operated daily.
  • On-board training in the use of the ship’s fire-extinguishing systems and appliances shall be planned and conducted in accordance with the provisions of regulation III/19.4.1.
  • Fire drills shall be conducted and recorded in accordance with the provisions of regulations III/19.3 and III/19.5.


Helicopter facilities

The purpose of this regulation is to provide additional measures in order to address the fire safety objectives of this chapter for ships fitted with special facilities for helicopters. For this purpose, the following functional requirements shall be met:

  • helideck structure must be adequate to protect the ship from the fire hazards associated with helicopter operations;
  • fire-fighting appliances shall be provided to adequately protect the ship from the fire hazards associated with helicopter operations;
  • refuelling and hangar facilities and operations shall provide the necessary measures to protect the ship from the fire hazards associated with helicopter operations; and
  • operation manuals and training shall be provided.

  A helideck shall be provided with both a main and an emergency means of escape and access for fire fighting and rescue personnel. These shall be located as far apart from each other as is practicable and preferably on opposite sides of the helideck.


Operations manual and fire-fighting service
  • Each helicopter facility shall have an operations manual, including a description and a checklist of safety precautions, procedures and equipment requirements. This manual may be part of the ship's emergency response procedures.
  • The procedures and precautions to be followed during refuelling operations shall be in accordance with recognized safe practices and contained in the operations manual.
  • Fire-fighting personnel, consisting of at least two persons trained for rescue and fire-fighting duties, and fire-fighting equipment shall be immediately available at all times when helicopter operations are expected.
  • Fire-fighting personnel shall be present during refuelling operations. However, the fire-fighting personnel shall not be involved with refuelling activities.
  • On-board refresher training shall be carried out and additional supplies of fire-fighting media shall be provided for training and testing of the equipment.


Fire Drills
  • Fire drills have caused accidents, and for this reason all elements involving unnecessary risks should be left out of such drills. Here are some examples:
  • When watertight doors are closed, there might be a risk of persons getting jammed in the doors that are closing with great force. For this reason, watertight doors should not be closed by means of remote control during drills.
  • The remote controlled release of fire doors can also involve a risk of personal injury. Before fire doors are remote released, a warning hereof should, insofar as possible, be announced on the public address system.
  • Some ships are provided with an arrangement for the recovery of a hoist stretcher, for example from the pump room. Training of the recovery of a hoist stretcher should be carried out without persons on the stretcher. A similar load can be used instead.
  • Darkening the glass of the smoke-helmet can, for example, simulate reduced visibility caused by smoke. This makes it possible for a person who can see to walk next to the fire-fighter with reduced visibility and interfere if the fire-fighter is about to get into trouble.


LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) vessels are specialized ships designed for the transportation of liquefied gases, primarily propane and butane. LPG is a valuable energy source used for various purposes, including heating, cooking, and as a fuel for vehicles. LPG vessels play a crucial role in the safe and efficient transport of these gases from production facilities to distribution centers and end-users.

Working on LPG vessels can be safe when the crew diligently follows all safety precautions and regulations. These ships are designed and operated with a strong emphasis on safety due to the nature of the cargo they transport, which includes highly flammable and potentially hazardous gases.

When all of safety precautions and regulations are followed diligently, the risks associated with working on LPG vessels are minimized, and the safety of the crew, the vessel, and the environment is well-preserved. Safety is paramount in the maritime industry, especially when dealing with hazardous cargo, and it requires a collective effort from the crew, shipping companies, and regulatory authorities to maintain these high standards of safety.

LPG vessels are primarily designed for the transportation of liquefied gases, particularly propane and butane. However, these vessels can transport a variety of other liquefied gases and chemical cargoes depending on their design and the required safety and containment measures. Some specific cargoes that can be transported on LPG vessels include:

  • Propane (C3H8): Propane is one of the most common cargoes carried on LPG vessels. It is widely used for heating, cooking, and as a fuel for vehicles.
  • Butane (C4H10): Butane is another common cargo transported on LPG vessels. It is used for heating and as a fuel, and it can be blended with propane for specific applications.
  • LPG Mixtures: LPG vessels can carry mixtures of propane and butane, often referred to as "autogas" when used as a vehicle fuel.
  • Ammonia (NH3): LPG vessels can transport ammonia, which is used in various industrial applications, including refrigeration and as a fertilizer.
  • Chlorine (Cl2): Chlorine, a hazardous cargo, can be carried in specialized containers on some LPG vessels. It is used in water treatment and as a chemical feedstock.
  • Pentane (C5H12): Pentane is used as a propellant in aerosol products, a blowing agent in the foam insulation industry, and as a fuel in some applications.
  • Propylene (C3H6): Propylene, a petrochemical, is used in the production of plastics, chemicals, and fuels.
  • Ethylene (C2H4): Ethylene is another important petrochemical used in the production of plastics, chemicals, and as a refrigerant.
  • Butadiene (C4H6): Butadiene is a chemical used in the production of synthetic rubber and plastics.
  • Isobutane (i-C4H10): Isobutane is used as a refrigerant and in the production of petrochemicals.
  • Vinyl Chloride (C2H3Cl): Vinyl chloride is a chemical used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics.
  • Ethyl Chloride (C2H5Cl): Ethyl chloride is used in various applications, including as a refrigerant, a propellant, and a local anesthetic.
  • Propylene Oxide (C3H6O): Propylene oxide is a chemical used in the production of polyurethane foams and glycol antifreeze.

It's important to note that transporting hazardous and flammable cargoes, including those listed above, on LPG vessels requires strict adherence to international safety regulations, proper containment, and safety measures to prevent accidents and protect the crew, vessel, and the environment. Shipping companies and seafarers must follow stringent safety protocols to ensure the safe transportation of these cargoes.

Here's an overview of how LPG vessels work and the process for seamen working on them:

  • Vessel Types: LPG vessels come in different types, including fully pressurized ships and semi-pressurized/fully refrigerated ships. Pressurized vessels carry LPG under high pressure in cylindrical tanks, while refrigerated vessels store LPG in low-temperature conditions, maintaining it as a liquid.
  • Loading and Unloading: Seamen on LPG vessels are responsible for loading and unloading LPG cargo. This involves connecting hoses, pumps, and valves to transfer the liquefied gas to or from onshore terminals or other vessels.
  • Safety Precautions: Safety is paramount on LPG vessels. Seamen must adhere to strict safety protocols and standards to prevent accidents and ensure the safe transportation of the cargo. This includes fire safety measures, handling emergency situations, and using personal protective equipment.
  • Cargo Handling: Seamen need to monitor the cargo's temperature, pressure, and other critical parameters to maintain its integrity. They may need to adjust the vessel's refrigeration or heating systems accordingly.
  • Navigation: Navigation and maintaining the vessel's stability are vital. Seamen work closely with the ship's officers to ensure the vessel is on the right course and that it maintains a steady balance, especially in rough seas.
  • Maintenance: Routine maintenance of equipment, engines, and safety systems is essential. Seamen are responsible for maintaining and repairing various ship systems to ensure the vessel's operational efficiency.
  • Documentation: Proper documentation of cargo operations, safety inspections, and maintenance records is crucial. Seamen must maintain accurate records as per international regulations.

When considering a future career on LPG vessels, here are some key perspectives to keep in mind:

  • Training: To work on LPG vessels, individuals typically need specific training and certifications, including STCW (Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers) and Gas Tanker Familiarization. Ongoing training and education are essential to keep up with industry advancements.
  • Safety Awareness: Safety is a top priority on LPG vessels. Aspiring seamen should have a strong commitment to safety procedures and be willing to follow rigorous safety protocols.
  • Career Progression: A career on LPG vessels can provide opportunities for advancement, from entry-level seamen to officers and engineers. Consider your long-term career goals and the required education and experience to achieve them.
  • Work-Life Balance: Be prepared for a seafaring lifestyle that often involves long periods away from home. Consider how this fits with your personal and family life goals.
  • Industry Outlook: Research the LPG shipping industry to understand its current trends and future prospects. The demand for LPG as an energy source and its role in the transition to cleaner fuels may impact the industry's growth.
  • Networking: Building a network in the maritime industry can be valuable for career advancement. Joining professional organizations and attending industry events can help you connect with peers and employers.
  • Environmental Considerations: As the world shifts towards more environmentally friendly energy sources, consider the industry's sustainability efforts and how they align with your values and career aspirations.

In summary, a career on LPG vessels can be rewarding, but it requires a commitment to safety, training, and a willingness to adapt to the evolving needs of the industry. It's essential to plan your future career with a focus on education, safety awareness, and understanding the industry's current and future dynamics.

The goals and salary expectations for a career on LPG vessels can vary depending on several factors, including your level of experience, position on the ship, qualifications, and the shipping company you work for. Here are some common goals and salary expectations associated with a career in this field:


  • Entry-Level Seafarer: If you're starting as an entry-level seafarer, your initial goals may include gaining experience and advancing to higher positions. This might involve acquiring necessary certifications and training to become more specialized in LPG vessel operations.
  • Certifications and Training: As you progress, your goals could include obtaining additional certifications and training to qualify for higher-ranking positions, such as becoming a deck officer or an engineer officer on an LPG vessel.
  • Career Advancement: Many individuals aim to climb the career ladder in the maritime industry. This can involve advancing from an Ordinary Seaman to Able Seaman, then to various officer roles (Third Mate, Second Mate, Chief Mate), and ultimately, becoming a Captain (Master) or Chief Engineer. Each step comes with increased responsibilities and higher salaries.
  • Specialization: Some seafarers may choose to specialize in specific areas, such as cargo operations, safety, or navigation. Specialization can lead to roles as a Cargo Officer or Safety Officer on LPG vessels.
  • Work-Life Balance: For some, the goal might be to find a balance between their seafaring career and personal life. This can include choosing specific types of LPG vessel jobs with shorter rotations or seeking employment with companies that prioritize work-life balance.
  • Long-Term Career Security: A goal for many seafarers is to have a long and stable career in the maritime industry, ensuring a steady source of income and job security.

Salary Expectations:

Salary expectations in the maritime industry, including LPG vessels, can vary widely based on factors such as experience, position, vessel type, location, and the shipping company. Here are some approximate salary ranges for different positions:

  • Entry-Level Seafarer (Ordinary Seaman or Deck Cadet): The starting salary for an entry-level seafarer can vary but may range from $20,000 to $40,000 per year.
  • Able Seaman: An Able Seaman can earn between $30,000 and $50,000 annually.
  • Officer Positions (Third Mate, Second Mate, Chief Mate): Salary for officers can range from $50,000 to $100,000 or more, depending on the rank and experience.
  • Captain (Master) or Chief Engineer: Captains and Chief Engineers are among the highest-paid positions in the industry. Their salaries can range from $100,000 to $200,000 or more annually.
  • Specialized Roles (Cargo Officer, Safety Officer): Specialized positions may command higher salaries, often similar to officer salaries.
  • Bonuses and Benefits: Some shipping companies offer bonuses, such as signing bonuses, retention bonuses, and profit-sharing, in addition to basic salaries. Benefits like accommodation, meals, and health insurance are usually provided while on board.

It's important to note that salaries can be significantly affected by factors such as the size and type of the vessel, the company's policies, your experience, the specific trade routes, and market conditions. Additionally, seafarers often work on a rotation system, with periods at sea and leave periods, which can affect their annual earnings. Overall, the goals and salary expectations for a career on LPG vessels can be lucrative, but they require dedication, hard work, and ongoing professional development.

Previously, we reviewed the Marine air compressor, providing a brief explanation of what it is, its uses, and potential problems associated with such compressors. In addition to ordinary air compressors, high-pressure compressors are designed to ensure safety on board vessels.

High-pressure compressors on vessels are essential pieces of equipment used to generate and store compressed air at significantly elevated pressures. These compressors are typically designed to handle higher pressure levels than standard compressors and serve various critical functions on ships. Here are some common applications for high-pressure compressors on vessels:

Air Start Systems: Many larger vessels, particularly those with large diesel engines, use high-pressure compressed air to start the engines. High-pressure air start systems provide the necessary force to turn the engine's crankshaft.

Pneumatic Tools: High-pressure air is used to operate pneumatic tools and equipment for maintenance and repair work on the ship. These tools require compressed air at higher pressures to operate effectively.

Inert Gas Systems: High-pressure compressors are used in inert gas systems on certain types of ships, such as oil tankers. These systems maintain a blanket of inert gas (typically nitrogen) over flammable cargo to prevent fires and explosions.

Hydrostatic Testing: High-pressure compressors are used for hydrostatic testing of various equipment and systems on board, including pressure vessels, pipelines, and firefighting equipment.

Scuba and Diving Operations: In some cases, high-pressure compressors are used to fill high-pressure cylinders for scuba diving and underwater work, which require air at elevated pressures.

Breathing Air Systems: Vessels with enclosed spaces or hazardous cargo may require high-pressure breathing air systems to provide clean, high-pressure air for crew members and divers to use with breathing apparatus.

High-Pressure Gas Storage: High-pressure compressors are used to fill and maintain high-pressure gas storage cylinders on board, which can be used for various purposes, including emergency gas supplies.

Firefighting Systems: Certain firefighting systems on vessels may use high-pressure compressed air to operate, such as fixed fire suppression systems and firefighting foam equipment.

Since the high-pressure compressor is an important safety equipment and requires special attention in terms of maintenance time. They need to be maintained and operated in accordance with safety regulations to ensure the safety of the vessel and its crew. The following are examples of serviceable components:

- Oil replacement for oil every 500 hours or every 6 months.

- AC/MS Cartridge replacement every 20 hours or every 15 hours according the model of compressor 20 degrees ambient temperature or every 6 months.

- Coalescing pre-filter cartridge replacement every 200 hours or once a year.

- Air intake cartridge replacement every 200 hours or once a year.

High-pressure compressors on vessels are designed to withstand the harsh marine environment and the demands of continuous operation. Crew members responsible for their operation and maintenance often require specialized training.

Marine air compressors play a vital role in the functioning of ships, providing the necessary air pressure for a wide range of tasks. These powerful machines are used across all types of vessels, contributing to essential operations that keep ships running smoothly.

Understanding the Role of Marine Air Compressors.

Marine air compressors, often overlooked but essential components, serve a multifaceted purpose. They work by decreasing air volume while increasing its energetic potential, delivering additional power to various onboard tasks. A ship's air compressor maintains the overall functionality of the vessel, from straightforward duties like filter cleaning and drying to the more critical tasks of starting auxiliary and main engines.

Built to Withstand Harsh Conditions.

Marine air compressors are constructed from sturdy materials that can withstand the demanding conditions of life at sea without warping. It is critical that these machines maintain their integrity, as using subpar air compressors could lead to device failure and even pose safety hazards.

How Air Compressors Function.

The fundamental principle behind air compressors is the compression of gas to increase its pressure while storing the compressed gas in a solid container or tank, typically equipped with pressure gauges and safety mechanisms. Compressors come in various types, including rotating, reciprocating, centrifugal, and screw-based designs.

Reciprocating compressors, similar in construction to internal combustion engines, feature a piston and cylinder arrangement. They incorporate inlet and outlet valves for normal air entry and the release of compressed air, along with other components like connecting rods and crankshafts. The more power a compressor needs to deliver, the greater the number of cylinders it typically possesses.

Diverse Applications on Ships.

Marine air compressors are versatile tools that serve multiple functions on ships, depending on their location. They are generally categorized into four main types:

  • Main;
  • Deck;
  • Emergency;
  • Topping Up.

Main Marine Air Compressor.

The primary marine air compressor serves as the power source for initiating both primary and auxiliary engines. It stores pressurized air, which is released to start the engines. Due to the significant power required for this task, the main marine air compressor typically boasts high capacity.

Deck Marine Air Compressor.

Deck marine air compressors are designed to be compact and portable, ensuring maximum mobility. This flexibility allows them to fulfill various functions on the deck, such as operating power tools for minor repairs or handling cleaning and sanitation tasks. In emergency situations on the deck, like fires, these compressors play a critical role in operating fire pumps, responding swiftly to maintain ship and crew safety.

Emergency Marine Air Compressor.

Emergency marine air compressors serve as backup power sources in case of power failures. They provide the necessary power to operate primary and auxiliary engines during potential power outages. Having at least one emergency air compressor onboard is essential to keep the ship's functionality intact.

Topping Up Marine Air Compressor.

Topping up marine air compressors are employed to compensate for any existing or potential leaks within a system. These compressors are connected to devices that monitor the system's current pressure. If the pressure falls below a specified level, the topping up marine air compressor can restore it to the desired level.

Troubleshooting Marine Air Compressors.

The marine air compressor system used onboard is of paramount importance to marine engineers, as it plays a crucial role in a ship's operation. Maintaining various components of the compressed air system, including compressors, pipelines, and air bottles, is vital.

To effectively troubleshoot common problems with air compressors, it is essential to understand all aspects of the system. Comprehensive checks should be conducted before operating the compressor. As a marine engineer, being able to identify and address common issues associated with marine air compressors is imperative.

Here are some common troubleshooting points for marine air compressors:

  1. Low Compressor Capacity.

Low compressor capacity is a prevalent issue, often resulting from prolonged operation without meeting air demand. Possible reasons for this problem include:

  • Leakage in discharge and suction valves.
  • Faults or leaks in the unloader.
  • Relief valve leaks.
  • Increased bumping clearance.
  • Incorrect compressor auto cut-in and cut-out settings (set too close).
  1. Oil Carry Over in Air.

If the compressed air contains oil, it could be due to:

  • Oil Water Separator is not working correctly hence oil is being carried to the air receiver;
  • The cylinder lubrication is adjusted at high quantity, leading to carryover of oil with air;
  • The auto drain is malfunctioning.
  1. Excessive Vibration and Noise.

Excessive noise and vibration from the compressor may be attributed to:

  • Loose pulley, flywheel, belt, belt guard, cooler, clamps or accessories;
  • Lack of oil in the crankcase;
  • Piston hitting the valve plate i.e reduced bumping clearance;
  • Compressor holding down bolts are loose;
  • Compressor foundation chocks have worn out.
  1. Overheating of Discharged Air

Overheating of discharged compressed air can be due to:

  • Clogged or dirty intercooler tubes.
  • Reduced or insufficient cooling water pump capacity.
  • Hot atmospheric air at the compressor's air suction.
  • Lack of forced ventilation for fresh air near the compressor.
  • Damaged head gasket.
  • Clogged air suction filter.
  • Leaking valves in the 1st or 2nd stage.
  1. Milky Oil in the Crankcase.

The presence of milky-colored oil in the crankcase may result from:

  • Water leakage from the cylinder liner or jacket.
  • Exceeded oil running hours.

These are some of the most common issues encountered with continuously running air compressors onboard ships. Understanding these problems and their possible causes is crucial for marine engineers to ensure the smooth operation of marine air compressors.

In the recent past the shipping industry has noted an increasing number of blackouts and main engine failures, which can result in a total loss of propulsion and steering capability. The risks to the vessel and crew become critical and may result in a major casualty when they occur while maneuvering in restricted areas (traffic lanes, channels), entering or leaving port or navigating close to a coast during heavy weather.

Total blackouts have occurred on vessels that operate either with a common power system configuration or with the power system split into two or more independent power systems. It is more prevalent in the former configuration. In the latter configuration, internal and external common cause failures are often the cause rather than individual equipment failures. Not all causes of vessel blackout can be recovered from – i.e. there may be some scenarios where recovery will not succeed even if it operates correctly. Success depends on whether the common cause failure that initiated the blackout remains active. Where recovery includes restart of generators, drives, major consumers and auxiliary services, the success of blackout recovery often depends on the absence of active lockout functions on the Main Switchboards, thruster drives restart time etc.

The primary aim of this paper is to:

• Review the various blackout recovery test procedures that are sometimes performed as part of annua trials and to evaluate their effectiveness in replicating a real blackout condition;

• Present an additional test procedure that could be performed to improve the effectiveness of Blackout Recovery Testing;

• Investigate the impact that any additional blackout recovery tests would have on equipment longevity;

• Identify system components and methodologies that could be incorporated into existing and future designs to facilitate blackout recovery tests – Build To Test.

The additional test proposed is considered as an enhancement of the existing tests that may already be performed as part of blackout recovery testing. Furthermore, the tests are not aimed specifically at any particular equipment manufacturer as the tests aim to replicate failures that could be experienced on any vessel regardless of equipment manufacture and design. However, the implementation of the test circuit may vary depending on the equipment type.

Consequences of Propulsion Loss.

The most serious consequences of a blackout or propulsion loss are contact, collision and/or grounding.


Furthermore, a significant number of claims for third party property damage, many of which were enormously expensive, could be attributed directly or indirectly to main engine failures or electrical blackouts.

Possible Causes of Propulsion Loss.

According to a detailed analysis of claims related to propulsion loss by UK P&I Club for a period of five (5) years, the main causes of propulsion loss are as follows:

• Insufficient or ineffective maintenance

• Equipment failure

• Human error

• Fire

What are action in case of Blackout on the vessel?

In all emergencies, Captain/Chief Eng. will take control of situations as soon as possible – but initiative must be taken by other individuals where immediate action is required.

Sounding the alarm must be loud and clear – use of the General alarm and PA System is encouraged.

Any available spare person should be nominated as writer as soon as possible to prompt actions from this checklist and record events as they happen.

What must be done?

1. Do not move around in darkness

2. Allow auto start of stand by generator and auto restoration of power to main switchboard to take place. Do not interfere.

3. Observe automatic sequential restart of all essential auxiliaries. Do not interfere.

4. Check plant conditions and parameters

5. Check if power is restored to emergency switchboard. * If not, do so manually at the emergency switchboard. (Switch select mode to Manual, stop engine and close bus tie).

6. Start and parallel a second generator.

7. Bring bridge control to stop and then restart main engine to bridge requirements.

8. Start all non automatic restart auxiliaries.

9. Stop G/E electric gasoil pump.

10. Reset boilers electric failure trip at local board.

11. Check that emergency generator is stopped.

12. Establish cause of blackout and rectify.

13. Note position at time of failure & at power resumption

14. Change to Steering Mode One & Gyro One when EM switchboard up.

15. Engage manual steering and alter away from any danger

16. Call Master

17. Clear away anchors if near coast / shallow water.

Actions upon the Bridge.

This is unlikely to be a bridge only blackout. As soon as emergency generator starts steering will be regained vessel will still have sufficient speed to alter from close danger. In the event of a blackout on the Bridge, the following actions must be carried out immediately:

1.Call the Master to the bridge and inform him of the situation.

2. Display the Not Under Command lights/shapes.

3. Acknowledge all alarms.

4. Check for any traffic in the immediate vicinity. Should any vessel pose a threat then the whistle, Aldis lamp, and VHF may be utilised to mitigate the threat. If vessel is totally blacked out with no battery power then the SOLAS VHF walkie talkies may be utilised.

5. A SECURITE message may be transmitted if required – but not unless authorised by the Master

6. Check for the proximity of any navigational hazards.

7. Fix and record the vessels position – GPS operates on battery mode.

8. Additional manning to the Bridge if required.

9. Engage manual steering and steer away from the nearest hazard. Note that with the emergency generator you can use the port steering motor – No 2.

10. If time permits switch radars to standby mode, and computers off.

11. Liase closely with the Engine Room as to the cause of the blackout and as to the expected duration of any maintenance prior to normal services being resumed.

12. If the blackout looks to be prolonged, and if conditions so warrant it, consider the use of anchors, and call relevant manpower.

13. A concise and chronological recording of events in the Deck Operations Log is required.

14. Following due consultation with the Engine Room, put the telegraph back to the stop position since it will require resetting for Bridge Control functions. Engine Room

Control may be required.

15. Any tank entry must be immediately suspended and the work permit cancelled until the situation is resolved – all other work permits must be reviewed and action taken if so required.


Sometimes you can hear the term brownout. Brownouts and blackouts are both terms used to describe electrical power disturbances, but they have different characteristics and causes:


A brownout is a temporary and intentional drop in voltage in an electrical power system.

It is usually initiated by the power utility company to prevent a complete blackout during times of high demand or when there is a shortage of electricity.

During a brownout, the voltage supplied to electrical devices is reduced, causing them to operate at lower power levels.

Brownouts can result in dimmer lighting, slower motorized devices, and potential damage to sensitive electronic equipment.

The intention behind a brownout is to conserve energy and prevent overloading the electrical grid, rather than completely cutting off power.


A blackout, also known as a power outage, is a complete and unexpected loss of electrical power in an area or region.

It can occur for various reasons, including severe weather events (such as storms or hurricanes), equipment failures, grid overloads, or human errors.

During a blackout, all electrical devices and lighting in the affected area cease to function until power is restored.

Blackouts can last for a short duration, such as a few seconds or minutes, or they can extend for hours or even days, depending on the cause and the ability of the power company to restore service.

Blackouts can disrupt daily life, lead to economic losses, and in some cases, pose safety risks.

In summary, a brownout is a controlled and deliberate reduction in voltage to conserve energy and prevent a complete blackout, while a blackout is an unplanned and total loss of electrical power due to various factors. Both can have significant impacts on electrical systems and the daily lives of people in the affected areas.